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Bibliografia Osteoporosi

Epidemiologia ed aspetti generali

  1. Consensus Development Conference (1993) Diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med 94:646–650
  2. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Sembo I, Redlund-Johnell I, Dawson A et al (2000) Long-term risk of osteoporotic fracture in Malmo. Osteoporos Int 11:669–674
  3. Johnell O, Kanis JA (2006) An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int 17:1726–1733
  4. Kanis JA, Johnell O, on behalf of the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (2005) Requirements for DXA for the management of osteoporosis in Europe. Osteoporos Int 16:220–238
  5. Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, Jacobsen SJ, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ (1993) A population based study of survival after osteoporotic fractures. Am J Epidemiol 137:1001–1005
  6. Kanis JA, Oden A, Johnell O, De Laet C, Jonsson B, Oglesby AK (2003) The components of excess mortality after hip fracture. Bone 32:468–473
  7. Murray CJL, Lopez AD (eds) (1996) The global burden of disease and injury series, vol II. Global health statistics: a compendium of incidence, prevalence and mortality estimates for over 200 conditions. Harvard School of Public Health on behalf of the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

Densitometria

  1. Blake GM, Fogelman I (2007) Role of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. J Clin Densitom 10:102–110
  2. Engelke K, Gluer CC (2006) Quality and performance measures in bone densitometry. I. Errors and diagnosis. Osteoporos Int 17:1283–1292
  3. Gluer CC, Lu Y, Engelke K (2006) Quality and performance measures in bone densitometry. II. Fracture risk. Osteoporos Int 17:1449–1458
  4. Genant HK, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Glüer CC, Grampp S, Harris ST et al (1996) Non invasive assessment of bone mineral and structure: state of the art. J Bone Miner Res 11:707–730
  5. Mazess R, Collick B, Trempe J, Barden H, Hanson J (1998) Performance evaluation of a dual energy X-ray bone densitometer. Calcif Tissue Int 44:228–232
  6. World Health Organization (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Technical Report Series 843. WHO, Geneva
  7. Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H (1996) Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. Br Med J 312:1254–1259
  8. Glüer CC, for the International Quantitative Ultrasound Consensus Group (1997) Quantitative ultrasound techniques for the assessment of osteoporosis: expert agreement on current status. J Bone Miner Res 12:1280–1288
  9. Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner W, Cauley J, Ensrud K et al (1993) Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet 341:72–75
  10. Johnell O, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Delmas P et al (2007) Predictive value of bone mineral density for hip and other fractures. J Bone Miner Res 22:774

Diagnosi

  1. World Health Organization (2007) Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health care level. Summary Report of a WHO Scientific Group. WHO, Geneva
  2. Kanis JA, on behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group (2007) Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary healthcare level. Technical Report. WHO Collaborating Centre, University of Sheffield, Sheffield
  3. Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL et al (1997) Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older US adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 12:1761–1768
  4. Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP (1998) Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults. Osteoporos Int 8:468–486
  5. Kanis JA, Glüer CC for the Committee of Scientific Advisors, International Osteoporosis Foundation (2000) An update on the diagnosis and assessment of osteoporosis with densitometry. Osteoporos Int 11:192–202
  6. Kanis JA, Melton LJ, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N (1994) The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9:1117–1141
  7. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Jonsson B, De Laet C, Dawson A (2000) Risk of hip fracture according to the World Health Organization criteria for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Bone 27:585–590
  8. Lewiecki EM,Watts NB, McClung MR, Petak SM, Bachrach TK,Shepherd JA et al (2004) Official position of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3651–3655
  9. Binkley N, Bilezikian JP, Kendler DL, Leib ES, Lewiecki EM, Petak SM, International Society for Clinical Densitometry (2006) Official positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and Executive Summary of the 2005 Position Development Conference. J Clin Densitom 9:4–14
  10. Blake GM, Patel R, Knapp KM, Fogelman I (2003) Does the combination of two BMD measurements improve fracture discrimination. J Bone Miner Res 18:1955–1963
  11. Kanis JA, Seeman E, Johnell O, Rizzoli R, Delmas P (2005) The perspective of the International Osteoporosis Foundation on the official positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Osteoporos Int 16:456–459
  12. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, Eisman JA, Fujiwara S et al (2006) The use of multiple sites for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 17:527–534

Limiti della Densitometria

  1. Kanis JA, Delmas P, Burckhardt P, Cooper C, Torgerson D, on behalf of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and Bone Disease (1997) Guidelines for diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 7:390–406
  2. Watts NB (2004) Fundamentals and pitfalls of bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osteoporos Int 15:847–854

Movimento e cadute

  1. Bonaiuti D, Shea B, Iovine R, Negrini S, Robinson V, Kemper HC et al (2002) Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD000333
  2. Myers AH, Young Y, Langlois JA (1996) Prevention of falls in the elderly. Bone 18:87S–101S
  3. Kannus P, Sievanen H, Palvanen M, Jarvinen T, Parkkari J (2005) Prevention of falls and consequent injuries in elderly people. Lancet 366:1885–1893
  4. Oliver D, Connelly JB, Victor CR, Shaw FE,Whitehead A, Genc Y et al (2007) Strategies to prevent falls and fractures in hospitals and care homes and effect of cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ 334:82
  5. Sawka AM, Boulos P, Beattie K, Thabane L, Papaioannou A, Gafni A et al (2005) Do hip protectors decrease the risk of hip fracture in institutional and community-dwelling elderly? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporos Int 16:1461–1474
  6. Parker MJ, Gillespie WJ, Gillespie LD (2006) Effectiveness of hip protectors for preventing hip fractures in elderly people: systematic review. BMJ 332:571–574
  7. Kiel DP, Magaziner J, Zimmerman S, Ball L, Barton BA, Brown KM et al (2007) Efficacy of a hip protector to prevent hip fracture in nursing home residents: the HIP PRO randomized controlled trial. JAMA 298:413–422

Nutrizione e Osteoporosi

  1. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Willett WC, Staehelin HB, Bazemore MG, Zee RYet al (1999). Effect of Vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. JAMA 28:1999–2006
  2. Tang B, Eslick GD, Nowson C, Smith C, Bensoussan A (2007) Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in older people: a meta-analysis. Lancet 370:657–666
  3. Rizzoli R, Bonjour JP (2004) Dietary protein and bone health. J Bone Miner Res 19:527–531

Terapia dell’Osteoporosi

  1. Delmas PD (2002) Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Lancet 359:2018–2026
  2. Boonen S, Body JJ, Boutsen Y, Devogelaer JP, Goemaere S, Kaufman JM et al (2005) Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club. Osteoporos Int 16:239–254

SERM

  1. Delmas PD, Bjarnason NH, Mitlak BH, Ravoux AC, Shah AS,Huster WJ et al (1997) Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 337:1641–1647
  2. Ettinger B, Black DM,Mitlak BH, Knickerbocker RK, Nickelsen T, Genant HK et al (1999) Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators. JAMA 282:637–645
  3. Delmas PD, Genant HK, Crans GG, Stock JL, Wong M, Siris E et al (2003) Severity of prevalent vertebral fractures and the risk of subsequent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures: results from the MORE trial. Bone 33:522–532
  4. Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Grady D, Powles TJ, Cauley JA et al (1999) The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation. JAMA 281:2189–2197
  5. Vogel VG, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Cronin WM, Cecchini RS, Atkins JN et al (2006) Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. JAMA 295:2727–2741
  6. Mosca L, Barrett-Connor E, Wenger NK, Collins P, Grady D, Kornitzer M et al (2001) Design and methods of the Raloxifene Use for The Heart (RUTH) study. Am J Cardiol 88:392–395
  7. Barrett-Connor E, Mosca L, Collins P, Geiger MJ, Grady D, Kornitzer M et al (2006) Effects of raloxifene on cardiovascular events and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 355:125–137

Bisfosfonati

  1. Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Nevitt MC et al (1996) Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Lancet 348:1535–1541
  2. Stevenson M, Lloyd Jones M, De Nigris E, Brewer N, Davis S, Oakley J (2005) A systematic review and economic evaluation of alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, raloxifene and teriparatide for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Health Technol Assess 9:1–160
  3. Cranney A, Guyatt G, Griffith L, Wells G, Tugwell P, Rosen C et al (2002) Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. IX. Summary of meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23:570–578
  4. Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, Applegate WB, Barrett-Connor E, Musliner TA et al (1998) Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial. JAMA 280:2077–2082
  5. Harris ST, Watts NB, Genant HK, McKeever CD, Hangartner T, Keller M et al (1999) Effects of risedronate treatment on vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. JAMA 282:1344–1352
  6. Reginster J, Minne HW, Sorensen OH, Hooper M, Roux C, Brandi ML et al (2000) Randomized trial of the effects of risedronate on vertebral fractures in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. Osteoporos Int 11:83–91
  7. McClung MR, Geusens P, Miller PD, Zippel H, Bensen WG, Roux C et al (2001) Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group. N Engl J Med 344:333–340
  8. Chesnut IC, Skag A, Christiansen C, Recker R, Stakkestad JA, Hoiseth A et al (2004) Effects of oral ibandronate administered daily or intermittently on fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 19:1241–1249
  9. Delmas PD, Recker RR, Chesnut CH III, Skag A, Stakkestad JA, Emkey R et al (2004) Daily and intermittent oral ibandronate normalize bone turnover and provide significant reduction in vertebral fracture risk: results from the BONE study. Osteoporos Int 15:792–798
  10. Reginster JY, Adami S, Lakatos P, Greenwald M, Stepan JJ, Silverman SL et al (2006) Efficacy and tolerability of oncemonthly oral ibandronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2 year results from the MOBILE study. Ann Rheum Dis 65:654–661
  11. Delmas PD, Adami S, Strugala C, Stakkestad JA, Reginster JY, Felsenberg D et al (2006) Intravenous ibandronate injections in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: one-year results from the Dosing Intravenous Administration Study. Arthritis Rheum 54:1838–1846
  12. Reid IR, Brown JP, Burckhardt P, Horowitz Z, Richardson P, Trechsel U (2002) Intravenous zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med 346:653–661
  13. Black DM, Delmas PD, Eastell R, Reid IR, Boonen S, Cauley JA et al (2007) Once-yearly zoledronic acid for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 356:1809–1822
  14. Lyles KW, Colon-Emeric CS, Magaziner JS, Adachi JD, Pieper CF, Mautalen C et al, the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial (2007) Zoledronic acid and clinical fractures and mortality after hip fracture. N Engl J Med 357:1799—1809

Paratormone

  1. Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, Prince R, Gaich GA, Reginster JY et al (2001) Effect of parathyroid hormone (1–34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 344:1434–1441
  2. Shrader SP, Raggucci KR (2005) Parathyroid hormone (1–84) and treatment of osteoporosis. Ann Pharmacother 39:1511–1516
  3. Prince R, Sipos A, Hossain A, Syversen U, Ish-Shalom S, Marcinowska E et al (2005) Sustained nonvertebral fragility fracture risk reduction after discontinuation of teriparatide treatment. J Bone Miner Res 20:1507–1513 -

Ranelato di Stronzio

  1. Meunier PJ, Roux C, Seeman E, Ortolani S, Badurski JE, Spector TD et al (2004) The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 350:459–468
  2. Reginster JY, Seeman E, De Vernejoul MC, Adami S, Compston J, Phenekos C et al (2005) Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:2816–2822

Terapie di Combinazione e Sequenziali

  1. Rabenda V, Hanssens L, De Ceulaer F, Reginster JY (2005) Is there any interest in combining treatments in osteoporosis? Curr Rheumatol Rev 1:49–55
  2. Ettinger B, San Martin J, Crans G, Pavo I (2004) Differential effects of teriparatide on BMD after treatment with raloxifene or alendronate. J Bone Min Res 19:745–750
  3. Black DM, Greenspan SL, Ensrud KE, Palermo L, McGowan JA, Lang TF et al (2003) The effects of parathyroid hormone and alendronate alone or in combination in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 249:1207–1215
  4. Finkelstein JS, Hayes A, Hunzelman JL, Wyland JJ, Lee H, Neer RM (2003) The effects of parathyroid hormone, alendronate, or both in men with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 349:1216–1226
  5. Deal C, Omizo M, Schwartz EN, Eriksen EF, Cantor P, Wang J et al (2005) Combination teriparatide and raloxifene therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis: results from a 6-month doubleblind placebo controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 20:1905–1911
  6. Black DM, Bilezikian JP, Ensrud KE, Greenspan SL, Palermo L, Hue Tet al (2005) One year alendronate after one year of parathyroid hormone (1–84) for osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 353:555–565

Calcitonina

  1. Reginster JY (1991) Effect of calcitonin on bone mass and fracture rates. Am J Med 91(5B):19S–22S
  2. Plosker GL, McTavis D (1996) Intranasal salcaltonin: a review of its pharmacological properties and role in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Drugs Aging 8:378–400
  3. Cranney A, Tugwell P, Zyatruk N, Robinson V, Weaver B, Shea B et al (2002) Meta-analysis of calcitonin for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23:540–551
  4. Chesnut CH III, Silverman S, Andriano K, Genant H, Giomana A, Harris S et al (2000) A randomized trial of nasal spray salmon calcitonin in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis: the prevent recurrence of osteoporotic fracture study. PROOF Study Group. Am J Med 109:267–276
  5. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Gullberg BO, Allander E, Dilsen G, Gennari C (1992) Evidence for efficacy of drugs affecting bone metabolism in preventing hip fracture. BMJ 305:1124–1128

Terapia Ormonale Sostitutiva

  1. Torgerson DJ, Bell-Syer SE (2001) Hormone replacement therapy and prevention of non-vertebral fractures: a metaanalysis of randomized trials. JAMA 285:2891–2897
  2. Cauley JA, Robbins J, Chen Z, Cummings SR, Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ et al (2003) Effects of estrogen plus progestin on risk of fracture and bone mineral density: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized trial. JAMA 290:1729–1738
  3. Sornay-Rendu E, Garnero P, Munoz F, Duboeuf F, Delmas PD (2003) Effect of withdrawal of hormone replacement therapy on bone mass and bone turnover: the OFELY study. Bone 33:159–166
  4. Bagger YZ, Tanko LG, Alexandersen P, Hansen HB, Mollgaard A, Ravn P et al (2004) Two to three years of hormone replacement treatment in healthy women have long-term preventive effects on bone mass and osteoporotic fractures: the PERF study. Bone 34:728–735
  5. Roussow JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML et al (2002) Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288:321–333 
  6. Wassertheil-Smoller S, Hendrix SL, Limacher M, Heiss G, Kooperberg C, Baird A et al (2003) Effect of estrogen plus progestin on stroke in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative: a randomized trial. JAMA 289:2673–2684
  7. Chlebowski RT, Hendrix SL, Langer RD, Stefanick ML, Gass M, Lane D et al (2003) Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA 289:3243–3253
  8. Shumaker SA, Legault C, Rapp SR, Thal L, Wallace RB, Ockene JK et al (2003) Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 289:2651–2662
  9. Hays J, Ockene JK, Brunner RL, Kotchen JM, Manson JE, Patterson RE et al (2003) Effects of estrogen plus progestin on health-related quality of life. N Engl J Med 348:1839–1854
  10. Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black H et al (2004) Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291:1701–1712

Etidronato

  1. McCloskey E, Selby P, Davies M, Robinson J, Francis RM, Adams J et al (2004) Clodronate reduces vertebral fracture risk in women with postmenopausal or secondary osteoporosis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-year study. J Bone Miner Res 19:728–736

Vitamina D

  1. Richy F, Ethgen O, Bruyere O, Reginster JY (2004) Efficacy of alfacalcidol and calcitriol in primary and corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: a meta-analysis of their effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate. Osteoporos Int 15:301–310
  2. Richy F, Schacht E, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, Gourlay M, Reginster JY (2005) Vitamin D analogs versus native vitamin D in preventing bone loss and osteoporosis-related fractures: a comparative meta-analysis. Calcif Tissue Int 76:176–186
  3. Tilyard MW, Spears GF, Thomson J, Dovey S (1992) Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with calcitriol or calcium. N Engl J Med 326:357–362
  4. Gallagher JC, Rapuri PB, Smith LM (2007) Age related decrease in creatinine clearance is associated with an increase in number of falls in untreated women but not in women receiving calcitriol treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:51–58

Clodronato

  1. McCloskey EV, BenetonM, CharlesworthD,Kayan K, deTakats D, Dey A et al (2007) Clodronate reduces the incidence of fractures in community dwelling elderly women unselected for osteoporosis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study. J Bone Miner Res 22:135–141

Compliance e Monitoraggio del Trattamento

  1. Lekkerkerker F, Kanis JA, Alsayed N, Bouvenot G, Burlet N, Cahall D et al (2007) Adherence to treatment of osteoporosis: a need for study. Osteoporos Int 18:1311–1317
  2. Solomon DH, Avorn J, Katz JN, Finkelstein JS, Arnold M, Polinski JM et al (2006) Compliance with osteoporosis medications. Arch Intern Med 165:2414–2419
  3. Reginster JY, Rabenda V (2006) Adherence to anti-osteoporotic treatment: does it really matter? Future Rheumatol 1:37–40
  4. Caro JJ, Ishak KJ, Huybrechts KF, Raggio G, Naujoks C (2004) The impact of compliance with osteoporosis therapy on fracture rates in actual practice. Osteoporos Int 15:1003–1008
  5. Carr AJ, Thompson PW, Cooper C (2006) Factors associated with adherence and persistence to bisphosphonate therapy in osteoporosis: a cross-sectional survey. Osteoporos Int 17:1638–1644

Monitoraggio con Densitometria

  1. Hochberg MC, Greenspan S, Wasnich RD, Miller P, Thompson DE, Ross PD (2002) Changes in bone density and turnover explain the reductions in incidence of nonvertebral fractures that occur during treatment with antiresorptive agents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1586–1592
  2. Delmas PD, Li Z, Cooper C (2004) Relationship between changes in bone mineral density and fracture risk reduction with antiresorptive drugs: some issues with meta-analyses. J Bone Miner Res 19:330–337
  3. Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Harris F, Genant HK, Ensrud K, LaCroix AZ et al (2006) Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs. Am J Med 112:281–289
  4. Watts NB, Geusens P, Barton IP, Felsenberg D (2005) Relationship between changes in BMD and non-vertebral fracture incidence associated with risedronate: reduction in risk of nonvertebral fracture is not related to change in BMD. J Bone Miner Res 20:2097–2104
  5. Sarkar S, Mitlak BH, Wong M, Stock JL, Black DM, Harper KD (2002) Relationships between bone mineral density and incident vertebral fracture risk with raloxifene therapy. J Bone Miner Res 17:1–10
  6. Chen P, Miller PD, Delmas PD, Misurski DA, Krege JH (2006) Change in lumbar spine BMD and vertebral fracture risk reduction in teriparatide treated postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 21:1785–1790
  7. Bruyère O, Roux C, Detilleux J, Slosman DO, Spector TD et al (2007) Relation between bone mineral density changes and fracture risk reduction in patients treated with strontium ranelate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3076–3081

Monitoraggio con markers biochimici

  1. Garnero P, Delmas PD (2001) Biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis. In: Marcus M, Feldman D, Kelsey J (eds) Osteoporosis, vol 2. Academic, New York, pp 459–477
  2. Delmas PD, Eastell R, Garnero P, Seibel MJ, Stepan J (2000) The use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis. Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foundation. Osteoporos Int 11(6):S1–S76
  3. Ravn P, Hosking D, Thompson D, Cizza G, Wasnich RD, McClung M et al (1999) Monitoring of alendronate treatment and prediction of effect on bone mass by biochemical markers in the early postmenopausal intervention cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:2363–2368
  4. Bjarnason NH, Sarkar S, Duong T, Mitlak B, Delmas PD, Christiansen C (2001) Six and twelve month changes in bone turnover are related to reduction in vertebral fracture risk during 3 years of raloxifene treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 12:922–930
  5. Eastell R, Barton I, Hannon RA, Chines A, Garnero P, Delmas PD (2003) Relationship of early changes in bone resorption to the reduction in fracture risk with risedronate. J Bone Miner Res 18:1051–1056
  6. Bauer DC, Black DM, Garnero P, Hochberg M, Ott S, Orloff J et al (2004) Change in bone turnover and hip, non-spine, and vertebral fracture in alendronate-treated women: the Fracture Intervention Trial. J Bone Miner Res 19:1250–1258
  7. Delmas PD, Vrijens B, Eastell R, Roux C, Pols H, Ringe J et al (2007) Effect of monitoring bone turnover markers on persistence with risedronate treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: the IMPACT study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1296–1304
  8. Bauer DC, Garnero P, Bilezikian JP, Greenspan SL, Ensrud KE, Rosen CJ et al (2006) Short-term changes in bone turnover markers and bone mineral density response to parathyroid hormone in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1370–1375
  9. Chen P, Satterwhite JH, Licata AA, Lewiecki EM, Sipos AA, Misurski DM et al (2005) Early changes in biochemical markers of bone formation predict BMD response to teriparatide in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 20:962–970

Valutazione del Rischio di Frattura

  1. Kanis JA, Black D, Cooper C, Dargent P, Dawson-Hughes B, De Laet C (2002) A new approach to the development of assessment guidelines for osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 13:527–536
  2. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, De Laet C, Jonsson B, Dawson A (2001) Ten year risk of osteoporotic fracture and the effect of risk factors on screening strategies. Bone 30:251–258
  3. Hui SL, Slemenda CW, Johnston CC (1988) Age and bone mass as predictors of fracture in a prospective study. J Clin Invest 81:1804–1809
  4. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Dawson A, De Laet C, Jonsson B (2001) Ten year probabilities of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD and diagnostic thresholds. Osteoporos Int 12:989–995
  5. Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox KM, Ensrud KE et al (1995) Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. N Engl J Med 332:767–773
  6. Ribot C, Pouilles JM, Bonneu M, Tremollieres F (1992) Assessment of the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis using clinical risk factors. Clin Endocrinol 36 225–228
  7. Poor G, Atkinson EJ, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ III (1995) Predictors of hip fractures in elderly men. J Bone Miner Res 10:1900–1907
  8. Kanis JA (2002) Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk. Lancet 359:1929–1936
  9. Kanis JA, Borgstrom F, De Laet C, Johansson H, Johnell O, Jonsson B et al (2005) Assessment of fracture risk. Osteoporos Int 16:581–589
  10. De Laet C, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johanson H, Johnell O, Delmas P et al (2005) Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 16:1330–1338
  11. Klotzbuecher CM, Ross PD, Landsman PB, Abbot TA, Berger M (2000) Patients with prior fractures have increased risk of future fractures: a summary of the literature and statistical synthesis. J Bone Miner Res 15:721–727
  12. Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, Johnell O, De Laet C, Eisman JA et al (2004) A family history of fracture and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Bone 35:1029–1037
  13. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Eisman JA et al (2006) Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 16:155–162
  14. Van Staa TP, Leufkens HGM, Cooper C (2002) The epidemiology of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 13:777–787
  15. Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, Johnell O, de Laet C, Melton III LJ et al (2000) A meta-analysis of prior corticosteroid use and fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res 19:893–899
  16. Kanis JA, Johansson H, Johnell O, Oden A, De Laet C, Eisman JA et al (2005) Alcohol intake as a risk factor for fracture. Osteoporos Int 16:737–742
  17. Johnell O, Oden A, De Laet C, Garnero P, Delmas PD, Kanis JA (2002) Biochemical indices of bone turnover and the assessment of fracture probability. Osteoporos Int 13:523–526

Strategie di Trattamento

  1. Royal College of Physicians (2002) Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Guidelines on prevention and treatment. Bone and Tooth Society of Great Britain, National Osteoporosis Society and Royal College of Physicians. Royal College of Physicians, London
  2. Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) (2006) Guideline on the evaluation of medicinal products in the treatment of primary osteoporosis. CHMP, London
  3. Kanis JA, Adams J, Borgström F, Cooper C, Jönsson B, Preedy D et al (2008) The cost-effectiveness of alendronate in the management of osteoporosis. Bone 42(1):4–15
  4. McCloskey E, Johansson H, Oden A, Kanis JA (2007) Comparison of European and WHO strategies for the identification of women at risk of hip fracture. Osteoporos Int 18(1):S23
  5. Dyslipidaemia Advisory Group on behalf of the Scientific Committee of the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand (1996) National Heart Foundation Clinical Guidelines for the assessment and management of dyslipidaemia. NZ Med J 109:224–232
  6. Kanis JA, Johnell O, De Laet C, Jonnson B, Oden A, Ogelsby AK (2002) International variations in hip fracture probability: implications for risk assessment. J Bone Miner Res 17:1237–1244

Farmacoeconomia dell’Osteoporosi

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  2. Persson U, Hjelmgren J (2003) Health services need knowledge of how the public values health. Lakartidningen 100:3436–3437
  3. Eichler HG, Kong SX, Gerth WC et al (2004) Use of costeffectiveness analysis in health-care resource allocation decisionmaking: how are cost-effectiveness thresholds expected to emerge? Value Health 7:518–528
  4. Kanis JA, Jonsson B (2002) Economic evaluation of interventions for osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 13:765–767
  5. World Health Organization (2001) Macroeconomics and health: investing in health for economic development: report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. World Health Organization, Geneva
  6. Fleurence RL, Iglesias CP, Torgerson, DJ (2006) Economic evaluations of interventions for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: a structured review of the literature. Osteoporos Int 17:29–40
  7. Zethraeus N, Ben Sedrine W, Caulin F, Corcaud S, Gathon HJ, Haim M (2002) Models for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 13:841–857
  8. Kanis JA, Borgstrom F, Zethraeus N, Johnell O, Oden A, Jonsson B (2005) Intervention thresholds for osteoporosis in the UK. Bone 36:22–32
  9. Zethraeus N, Borgström F, Ström O, Kanis JA, Jönsson B on behalf of the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (2007) Cost-effectiveness of the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis—a review of the literature and a reference model. Osteoporos Int 18:9–23
  10. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Borgstrom F, Johansson H, De Laet C et al (2005) Intervention thresholds for osteoporosis in men and women: a study based on data from Sweden. Osteoporos Int 16:6–14
  11. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, De Laet C, Oglesby A, Jonsson B (2002) Intervention thresholds for osteoporosis. Bone 31:26–31
  12. Johannesson M, Jonsson B (1993) Economic evaluation of osteoporosis prevention. Health Policy 24:103–124
  13. Borgstrom F, Johnell O, Kanis JA, Jonnson B, Rehnberg C (2006) At what hip fracture risk is it cost-effective to treat? International intervention thresholds for the treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 17:1459–1471
  14. Van Staa TP, Geusens P, Zhang B, Leufkens HG, Boonen A, Cooper C (2007) Individual fracture risk and the cost-effectiveness of bisphosphonates in patients using oral glucocorticoids. Rheumatology (Oxford) 46:460–466
  15. Cauley JA, Norton L, Lippman ME, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Purdie DWet al (2001) Continued breast cancer risk reduction in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene: 4-year results from the MORE trial. Multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation. Breast Cancer Res Treat 65:125–134. Erratum in: Breast Cancer Res Treat 2001 67:191 
  16.  Royal College of Physicians (1999) Osteoporosis: clinical guidelines for the prevention and treatment. Royal College of Physicians, London
  17. Royal College of Physicians and Bone and Tooth Society of Great Britain (2000) Update on pharmacological interventions and an algorithm for management. Royal College of Physicians, London
  18. Kanis JA, Borgstrom F, Johnell O, Jonsson B (2004) Costeffectiveness of risedronate for the treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 15:862–871
  19. Kanis JA, Borgstrom F, Johnell O, Oden A, Sykes D, Jonsson B (2005) Cost-effectiveness of raloxifene in the UK. An economic evaluation based on the MORE study. Osteoporosis Int 16:15–25
  20. Strom O, Borgstrom F, Sen SS, Boonen S, Haentjens P, Johnell O et al (2007) Cost-effectiveness of alendronate in the treatment of postmenopausal women in 9 European countries— an economic evaluation based on the fracture intervention trial. Osteoporos Int 18:1047–1061
  21. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007) Final appraisal determination. Alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, raloxifene, strontium ranelate and teriparatide for the secondary prevention of osteoporotic fragility fractures in postmenopausal women. NICE, London
  22. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007) Final appraisal determination. Alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, raloxifene and strontium ranelate for the primary prevention of osteoporotic fragility fractures in postmenopausal women. NICE, London
  23. Delmas PD, Siris E (2008) NICE recommendations for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. Bone 42(1):16–18
  24. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2004) Guide to the methods of technology appraisal. Abbo Litho Sales, London
  25. Kanis JA, Stevenson M, McCloskey EV, Davis S, Lloyd-Jones M (2007) Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: a systematic review and cost-utility analysis. Health Technol Assess 11:1–256
  26. Zethraeus N, Ström O, Borgström F, Kanis JA, Jönsson B (2007) The cost-effectiveness of the treatment of osteoporosis, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia in Sweden. Osteoporos Int 18:9–23

 
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